HERBERT WILDON CARR (1857–1931)
The Problem Of Truth (1913)
87 pages long.
"A problem of philosophy is completely different from a problem of science. In science we accept our subject-matter as it is presented in unanalysed experience; in philosophy we examine the first principles and ultimate questions that concern conscious experience itself. The problem of truth is a problem of philosophy. It is not a problem of merely historical interest, but a present problem—a living controversy, the issue of which is undecided. Its present interest may be said to centre round the doctrine of pragmatism, which some fifteen years ago began to challenge the generally accepted principles of philosophy. In expounding this problem of truth, my main purpose has been to make clear to the reader the nature of a problem of philosophy and to disclose the secret of its interest. My book presumes no previous study of philosophy nor special knowledge of its problems. The theories that I have shown in conflict on this question are, each of them, held by some of the leaders of philosophy. In presenting them, therefore, I have tried to let the full dialectical force of the argument appear. I have indicated my own view, that the direction in which the solution lies is in the new conception of life and the theory of knowledge given to us in the philosophy of Bergson. If I am right, the solution is not, like pragmatism, a doctrine of the nature of truth, but a theory of knowledge in which the dilemma in regard to truth does not arise. But, as always in philosophy, the solution of one problem is the emergence of another. There is no finality." (Preface)
The Philosophy Of Benedetto Croce: The Problem Of Art And History (1917)
"I have not attempted to deal with all the problems which find a place in Croce's philosophical writings, nor with all the new interpretations, theoretical and practical, which his philosophy necessitates. A critical commentary on his whole work is quite outside the scope and purpose of this study. I have selected certain leading ideas which seem to me of supreme importance in the present state of philosophy." (Preface)
Henri Bergson: The Philosophy Of Change (1919, New Edition)
115 pages long—excluding 3 legible pages of Bibliography.
"Monsieur Henri Bergson, the philosopher whose teaching I have tried to present in brief in this little manual, is still in the full vigour of his life and thought. He is a philosopher who combines profound and original thinking with a wonderful talent for clear exposition. He is a Professor at the College of France, and a Member of the Institute. Although his writing and teaching are in the language of his country, we English may claim a special share in him so far as there is any nationality in philosophy. It is very largely by the direct study of the classical English philosophers that the particular direction of his thought has been determined. The influence of Herbert Spencer and of John Stuart Mill, and also of the older English philosophers, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume, is clearly manifest in his writings. It is particularly shown in his attitude toward physical science. His philosophy is not an attempt to depreciate science or to throw doubt on scientific method, but, on the contrary, its whole aim is to enhance the value of science by showing its true place and function in the greater reality of life.
The purpose that I have kept in view in the following pages is to give the reader not a complete epitome of the philosophy so much as a general survey of its scope and method. If the reader is interested and desires to become a student, there is only one advice that I can give him, and that is to read Monsieur Bergson's books. If the problems they deal with interest him, he will find no difficulty in understanding them, for the author's style is a model of lucidity." (Preface)
Mind-Energy: Lectures And Essays (1920) by Bergson, Henri (1859–1941)
"This volume of Lectures and Essays is an English edition of L'Energie spirituelle. It is not simply an approved and authorized translation, for M. Bergson 'has gone carefully with me into details of meaning and expression in order to give it the same authority as the original French.
The separate articles here collected and selected are, partly lectures in exposition of philosophical theory, partly detailed psychological investigation and metaphysical research. The publication of the volume was in preparation when the war broke out and interrupted the work. The principle on which the articles are selected is indicated in the title, Mind-Energy. They are chosen by M. Bergson with the view of illustrating his concept that reality is fundamentally a spiritual activity." (Preface)
A Theory Of Monads: Outlines Of The Philosophy Of The Principle Of Relativity (1922) ADOPTED
"IN this book I have brought together studies which have occupied me for many years, and have tried to impress on them the directive force of my general philosophy of life. They do not pretend to the completeness of system, they are not meant to suggest that a final solution of the philosophical problem is to be attained along any definite speculative line, they are not even my voyage of discovery, they are my exploration of the great problem of existence. Yet while I am conscious that I may have raised more problems than I have elucidated, with regard to one problem at least, I think I may claim to have made an advance. For many years it seemed to me that philosophy was paralysed by the inability to offer any escape from the solipsistic dilemma, and in the theory of the monads this difficulty has always seemed to assume its most intractable form. The argument which I have developed in my second chapter and illustrated in my tenth, may not appeal with the same force to every one, but it is the argument which satisfies me on this point.
Each chapter has an individual theme and may be read by itself. Yet the themes are not strung together as beads on a thread. They present, at least in their author's mind, a definite order in the development of the philosophical problem, and they are all inspired by the motive of evolving a theory consistent with the principles of the new science." (Preface)
The General Principle Of Relativity: In Its Philosophical And Historical Aspect (1922, 2nd Edition) ADOPTED
"SINCE the publication of this book, a little more than a year ago, the interest in Einstein and the principle of relativity has very greatly increased. There are now a large number of popular expositions, and the theory itself has undergone some notable advances in its philosophical, mathematical and physical application. In pure philosophy Lord Haldane's Reign of Relativity has applied it to the direct interpretation of the theory of knowledge. In mathematical physics the important work of Hermann Weyl, Space-Time-Matter, is an advance even on Einstein, and applies the principle not only to the geometry of masses, but to that of intermolecular movements, and to electro-magnetic phenomena generally, thus making it embrace the physical world in its entirety.
The main purpose of this book is to show the historical relations of the new principle to the old philosophical problems and to the classical theories
of space and time. I have, with the exception of a few important emendations, left the historical chapters unaltered, but I have added a new
chapter on "Einstein's Theory" in order to show more clearly than the original work did the nature of the revolution which it effects in
scientific method and in the concept of physical reality." (Preface)
Scientific Approach To Philosophy: Selected Essays And Reviews (1924)
Suggest and discuss books to read (all languages welcome!)
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