CARL GUSTAV JUNG (1875–1961)
The Psychology Of Dementia Praecox (1909)
"Bleuler and Jung inaugurated a new epoch in psychiatry by attempting to penetrate into the mysteries of the individual influence of the symptoms. They show conclusively why we have here this combination and there that combination of symptoms. In the cases described by them we see that the senseless expressions and actions have their reasons. But both Bleuler and Jung are only pioneers in a new field; they are not the discoverers of this terra incognita. The honor of this belongs to Breuer and Freud.
Jung and Riklin collected a great number of associations from normal persons with the intention of finding out first whether there exists any regularity in the reactions, and second whether there are definite reaction types. It was soon found that the process of association is an extraordinarily flighty and variable psychic process, and is under the influence of numberless psychical events which are beyond the limits of objective control. It was also found that attention exerts the greatest influence on the association process. It directs and modifies the associative process and at the same time can be most readily controlled by experiments. It is the delicate affective apparatus which is the first to react in abnormal physical and psychic conditions, thus modifying the associative accomplishments.
The complexes as developed by Jung are identical with the dissociated psychic groups described by Freud. Just as the complexes dominate our thoughts and actions, so do the repressed psychic groups assert themselves symbolically not only in pathological but also in normal individuals. In his excellent work, the Psychopathologie des Alltagslebens, 12 Freud shows that everyday forgetfulness, lapses in writing, talking, adventitious acts and
mistakes are nothing but the assertion of the split-off groups which, though repressed by the ego-consciousness, continue to manifest themselves on every possible occasion in the form of symbolic actions. The same is true of our dreams 13 where our repressed wishes are realized. It is impossible to give examples here, as they would be too long for the subject in hand.
These brief illustrations from the works of Freud and Jung give an intimation of the ideas expanded in this book. The author shows that just as in normal individuals and in hysteria the complex continues to play its part in dementia praecox, and as it does in dreams, the psychosis tends to actualize the repressed wishes from normal life. The otherwise known absurdities and incomprehensibilities become quite clear ; every case has its special interests and its own individuality." (Translator's Preface)
The Theory Of Psychoanalysis (1915)
"In these lectures I have attempted to reconcile my practical experiences in psychoanalysis with the existing theory, or rather, with the approaches to such a theory. Here is my attitude towards those principles which my honored teacher Sigmund Freud has evolved from the experience of many decades. Since I have long been closely connected with psychoanalysis, it will perhaps be asked with astonishment how it is that I am now for the first time defining my theoretical position. When, some ten years ago, it came home to me what a vast distance Freud had already travelled beyond the bounds of contemporary knowledge of psycho-pathological phenomena, especially the psychology of the complex mental processes, I no longer felt myself in a position to exercise any real criticism. I did not possess the sorry mandarin-courage of those people who upon a basis of ignorance and incapacity consider themselves justified in "critical "rejections. I thought one must first work modestly for years in such a field before one might dare to criticize.
And so my criticism has not proceeded from academic arguments, but from experiences which have forced themselves on me during ten years earnest work in this sphere. I know that my experience in no wise approaches Freud's quite extraordinary experience and insight, but none the less it seems to me that certain of my formulations do present the observed facts more adequately than is the case in Freud's method of statement. At any rate I have found, in my teaching, that the conceptions put forward in these lectures have afforded peculiar aid in my endeavors to help my pupils to an understanding of psychoanalysis. With such experience I am naturally inclined to assent to the view of Mr. Dooley, that witty humorist of the New York Times, when he says, defining pragmatism : " Truth is truth ' when it works.' " I am indeed very far from regarding a modest and moderate criticism as a " falling away " or a schism ; on the contrary, through it I hope to help on the flowering and fructification of the psychoanalytic movement, and to open a path towards the scientific treasures of psychoanalysis for those who have hitherto been unable to possess themselves of psychoanalytic methods, whether through lack of practical experience or through distaste of the theoretical hypothesis." (Introduction)
Psychology Of The Unconscious (1916)
"That humanity is seeking a new message, a new light upon the meaning of life, and something tangible, as it were, with which it can work towards a larger understanding of itself and its relation to the universe, is a fact I think none will gainsay. Therefore, it has seemed to me particularly timely to introduce to the English-speaking world Dr. Jung's remarkable book, "Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido." In this work he has plunged boldly into die treacherous sea of mythology and folklore, the productions of the ancient mind and that of the common people, and turned upon this vast material the same scientific and painstaking method of psychologic analysis that is applied to the modem mind, in order to reveal the common bond of desire and longing which unites all humanity, and thus bridge the gaps presumed to exist between ancient and widely separated peoples and those of our modem time. The discovery of this undercurrent affecting and influencing ancient peoples as well as modern serves as a foundation or platform from which he proceeds to hold aloft a new ideal, a new goal of attainment possible of achievement and which can be intellectually satisfying, as well as emotionally appealing: the goal of moral autonomy.
This book, remarkable for its erudition and the tremendous labor expended upon it, as well as for the new light which it sheds upon human life, its motives, its needs and its possibilities, is not one for desultory reading or superficial examination. Such an approach will prevent the reader from gaining anything of its real value ; but for those who can bring a serious interest and willingness to give a careful study to it the work will prove to be a veritable mine capable of yielding the greatest riches." (Translator's Note)
Studies In Word-Association (1919)
"This book is a translation of a series of papers on the results of the association method applied to normal and abnormal persons, which appeared in the Journal fur Psychologie und Neurologie (vols, iii-xvi) and were afterwards collected into two volumes.
The experiments were carried out at the instance and under the guidance of Dr. Jung. The work which Drs. Jung and Riklin published in 1904 gave an entirely new direction to association experiments. The principle of mental association is, of course, of reputable antiquity : " Do you not know, then, that lovers when they see a lyre, or a garment, or anything else which their favourite is accustomed to use, are thus affected ; they both recognize the lyre and receive in their minds the form of the person to whom the lyre belonged."
Its experimental phase begins with Galton's work in 1879 and Wundt's in 1880.
The new departure which we owe to Dr. Jung is the application of the association method to unconscious mental processes ; the theory of unconscious complexes was developed by these experiments ; the results obtained by Freud's psycho-analytic technique were confirmed by the use of a very different method.
This confirmation by experimental methods compelled many who had hitherto looked askance at the psycho-analytic theory of the unconscious to investigate the phenomena for themselves. These studies in word-association have now acquired a permanent place in the historical development of this theory. Every serious student of psychology, every educationist, every one who wishes to engage in the study or treatment of morbid mental processes, will find in these " Studies " a storehouse of facts which will serve not only as a solid basis for his own studies but also as a starting-point for further research." (Translator's Preface)
Collected Papers On Analytical Psychology (1920, 2nd Edition)
"The following papers have been gathered together from various sources, and are now available for the first time to English readers. The subject of psychoanalysis is much in evidence, and is likely to occupy still more attention in the near future, as the psychological content of the psychoses and neuroses is more generally appreciated and understood. It is of importance, therefore, that the fundamental writings of both the Viennese and Zürich Schools should be accessible for study. Several of Freud's works have already been translated into English. Dr. Jung's "Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido" was published in America in 1916 under the title of "The Psychology of the Unconscious." That work, read in conjunction with these papers, offers a fairly complete picture of the scientific and philosophic standpoint of the leader of the Zürich School. It is the task of the future to judge and expand the findings of both schools, and to work at the development of the new psychology, which is still in its infancy.
It will be a relief to many students of the unconscious to see it in another aspect than that of "a wild beast couched, waiting its hour to spring." Some readers have gathered that view of it from the writings of the Viennese School, a view which is at most that dangerous thing "a half-truth."
In the papers appearing for the first time in this edition (Chapters XIV. and XV.), Dr. Jung develops his ideas of introversion and extroversion, a contribution of the first importance to psychology. He agrees with Freud in regarding the neuroses to be the result of repression, but differs in his view as to the origin of repression. He finds this to lie[vi] not in sexuality per se, but rather in man's natural tendency to adapt to the demands of life one-sidedly, according to his type of mentality. The born extrovert adapts by means of feeling, thought being under repression and relatively infantile. The introvert's natural adaptation is by means of thought; feeling being more or less repressed remains undeveloped. In either type the neglected co-function is behind the adapted function. This inequality operating in the unconscious, brings about a conflict, which in certain subjects amounts to a neurosis, and in others produces a limitation of individual development. This view shifts the interpretation of repression on to a much more comprehensive basis than that of sexuality, although there can scarcely be a repression that does not include this instinct on account of its deep and far-reaching importance in man.
There is no doubt that some even scientific persons have a certain fear of whither the study of the unconscious may lead. These fearful persons should be reminded that they possess an unconscious in spite of themselves, and that they share it in common with every human being. It is an extension of the individual. To study it is to deepen the self. All new discoveries have at one stage been called dangerous, and all new philosophies have been deemed heresies. It is as though we would once more consign radium to its dust-heaps, lest some day the new radiancy should over-power mankind. Indeed this particular thing has proved at once most dangerous and most precious. Man must learn to use his treasure, and in using it to submit to its own laws, which can only become known when it is handled and investigated.
Those who read this book with the attention it requires, will find they gain an impression of many new truths. The second edition is issued towards the end of the third year of the Great European war, at a time when much we have valued and held sacred is in the melting-pot. But we believe that out of the crucible new forms will arise. The study of psychoanalysis produces something of the effect of a war in the psyche; indeed, we need to make conscious this war in the[vii] inner things of the mind and soul if we would be delivered in the future from war in the external world. There is a parallelism between individual and international neurosis. In the pain of the upheaval, one recognises the birth-pangs of newer, and let us hope, truer thought, and more natural adaptations. We need a renewal of our philosophy of life to replace much that has perished in the general cataclysm, and it is because I see in the analytical psychology, which grows out of a scientific study of the unconscious, the germs of such a new construction, that I have gathered the following essays together. The translation is the work of various hands, the names of the different translators being given in a footnote at the beginning of each essay; for the editing I am responsible. The essays are, as far as possible, printed in chronological order, and those readers who are sufficiently interested will be able to discern in them the gradual development of Dr. Jung's present position in psychoanalysis." (Editor's Preface To Second Edition)
Psychological Types or The Psychology Of Individuation (1923)
"The great value of the present work lies in the fact that it is a mature and conscious survey of the psychological field, viewed by a mind of unique range and development whose astonishing wealth of psychological experience illumines the whole work. The range of Jung’s thought has developed with his experience. The Psychology of the Unconscious was the shaft of the tree—this work is its ample spread.
For practical psychologists it must assuredly be regarded as the foundation of the science, for in no other work do we find basic psychological principles whose validity is commensurate with the undeniable facts of man’s historic development and the realities of individual experience." (Translator's Preface)
Suggest and discuss books to read (all languages welcome!)
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